Main Article Content
In this study, we propose to expand the research on the biomechanics of cycling, including changes caused by riding at different intensity levels and fatigue, similar to training or competition. Six well-trained, experienced male road cyclists (27.17 ± 3.89 years; 180.41 ± 5.31 cm; 75.23 ± 4.91 kg) with 8.3 ± 4.85 years of (professional) experience in road cycling underwent a lactate test, starting with 100 W and an increment of 20 W every 3 minutes until total exhaustion. Afterward, subjects drove an increment of 50 W every 3 minutes, starting again with 100 W and ending with 250 W (post-test). Changes in position were recorded via 2D video analysis. We found that with higher power output relative to the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), the joint angles changed. No significant differences were present for the pre–post comparisons of the examined angles, which should map the influence of fatigue (p > .05). Future research should try to observe cycling movement in more realistic settings, such as cycling-specific fatigue or during an outdoor ride, as the biomechanics under these conditions are of particularly high relevance for the athletes. Overall, the results suggest performing bike fitting more individually and in more realistic situations or setting.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Grant numbers 03IHS075B
Abbiss, C. R., & Laursen, P. B. (2005). Models to Explain Fatigue during Prolonged Endurance Cycling. Sports Med, 35(10), 865-898. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535100-00004
Bateman, J. (2014). Influence of positional biomechanics on gross efficieny within cycling. Journal of Science & Cycling Book of Abstracts, 3(2), 4. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535100-00004
Billaut, F., Basset, F. A., & Falgairette, G. (2005). Muscle coordination changes during intermittent cycling sprints. Neuroscience Letters, 380(3), 265-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.01.048
Bini, R. R., & Bini, A. F. (2018). Potential factors associated with knee pain in cyclists: a systematic review. Open Acces Journal of Sports Medicine, 9, 99-106. https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S136653
Bini, R. R., & Hume, P. A. (2016). A comparison of static and dynamic measures of lower limb joint angles in cycling: Application to bicycle fitting. Human Movement, 17(1), 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1515/humo-2016-0005
Bini, R. R., Hume, P. A., & Croft, J. (2014). Cyclists and triathletes have different body positions on the bicycle. European Journal of Sport Science, 14(1), 109-115. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.654269
Bini, R. R., Hume, P. A., Croft, J., & Kilding, A. (2014). Optimizing bicycle configuration and cyclists' body position to prevent overuse injury using biomechanical approaches. In R. R. Bini, & F. P. Carpes, Biomechanics of Cycling (S. 71-83). Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05539-8_8
Bini, R., Daly, L., & Kingsley, M. (2020). Changes in body position on the bike during seated sprint cycling: Applications to bike fitting. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1610075
Bini, R., Hume, P. A., & Croft, J. L. (2011). Effects of bicycle saddle height on knee injury risk and cycling performance. Sports Med., 41(6), 463-476. https://doi.org/10.2165/11588740-000000000-00000
Clarsen, B., Krosshaug, T., & Bahr, R. (2010). Overuse injuries in Professinal Road Cyclists. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(12), 2494-2501. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510376816
de Marée, H. (2003). Sportphysiologie. Köln: Sportverlag Strauß.
Dettori, N. J., & Norvell, D. C. (2006). Non-traumatic bicycle injuries. Sports Medicine, 36(1), 7-18. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636010-00002
Doyle-Baker, D., Temesi, J., Medysky, M. E., Holash, R. J., & Millet, G. Y. (2018). An innovative ergometer to measure neuromuscular fatigue immediately after cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 50(2), 375-387. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001427
Ellis, P. D. (2010). The essential guide to effect sizes: Statistical power, meta-analysis, and the interpretation of research results. Cambridge: University press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511761676
Ericson, M. O., & Nissel, R. (1987). Patellafemoral joint forces during ergometric cycling. Physical Therapy, 67(9), 1365-1369. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/67.9.1365
Ferrer-Roca, V., Roid, A., Galilea, P., & Garcia-López, J. (2011). Static versus dynamic evaluation in bike fitting: Influence of saddle height on lower limb kinematics. Portugeuese Journal of Sport Sciences, 11(2), 227-230. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318245c09d
Fonda, B., Sarabon, N., & Li, F. X. (2013). Validity of different kinematical methods for assesing knee angle during cycling. In D. Madic (Hrsg.), International Scientific Conference Exercise and Quality of Life (S. 129-133). Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad.
Froyd, C., Millet, G. Y., & Noakes, T. D. (2013). The development of periphal fatigue and short-term recovery during self-paced high-intensity exercise. The Journal of Physiology, 591(5), 1339-1346. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.245316
Galindo-Martínez, A., López-Valenciano, A., Albaladejo-García, C., Vallés-González, J. M., & Elvira, J. L. (2021). Changes in the Trunk and Lower Extremity Kinematics Due to Fatigue Can Predispose to Chronic Injuries in Cycling. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3719), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073719
Hug, F., Laplaud, D., Savin, B., & Grelot, L. (2003). Occurrence of electromyographic and ventilatory thresholds in professional road cyclists. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 90(5), 643-646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0949-5
Muyor, J. M., Alacid, F., & López-Miñarro, P. A. (2011). Influence of hamstring muscles extensibility on spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in highly trained cyclists. Journal of Human Kinetics, 29, 15-23. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-011-0035-8
O'Bryan, S. J., Brown, N. A., Billaut, F., & Rouffet, D. M. (2014). Changes in muscle coordination and power output during sprint cycling. Neuroscience Letters, 576, 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2014.05.023
Priego Quesada, J. I., Kerr, Z. Y., Bertucci, W. M., & Carpes, F. P. (2019). The association of bike fitting with injury, comfort, and pain during cycling: An international retrospective survey. European Journal of Sport Science, 19(6), 842-849. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1556738
Streisfeld, G. M., Bartoszek, C., Creran, E., Inge, B., McShane, M. D., & Johnston, T. (2016). Relationship between body positioning, muscle activity and spinal kinematics in cyclists with and without low back pain: A systematic review. Sports Health, 9(1), 75-79. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738116676260
Swart, J., & Holliday, W. (2019). Cycling Biomechanics Optimization-the (R) Evolution of Bicycle Fitting. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 18(12), 490-496. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000665
Teufl, W., Taetz, B., Miezal, M., Lorenz, M., Pietschmann, J., Jöllenbeck, T., ... & Bleser, G. (2019). Towards an inertial sensor-based wearable feedback system for patients after total hip arthroplasty: Validity and applicability for gait classification with gait kinematics-based features. Sensors, 19(22), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19225006
Thomas, K., Elmeua, M., Howatson, G., & Goodall, S. (2016). Intensity-dependent contribution of neuromuscular fatigue after constant-load cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(9), 1751-1760. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000950
Wahl, P., Manunzio, C., Vogt, F., Strütt, S., Volmary, P., Bloch, W., & Mester, J. (2017). Accuracy of a modified lactate minimum test and reverse lactate thershold test to determine maximal lactate steady state. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(12), 3489-3496. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001770